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서드버리 전투, 1676: 필립 왕의 전쟁에서 아메리카 원주민의 결정적인 승리

서드버리 전투, 1676: 필립 왕의 전쟁에서 아메리카 원주민의 결정적인 승리


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1676년 4월 21일, 80명의 매사추세츠 민병대 중대가 필립 왕 전쟁의 절정 전투 중 하나에서 500명의 강력한 아메리카 원주민 군대에 맞서 죽음을 맞이했습니다.


서드버리 파이트

더 서드버리 파이트 (1676년 4월 21일)은 필립 왕의 전쟁으로 오늘날의 서드버리와 매사추세츠주 웨이랜드에서 약 500여 명의 Wampanoag, 160 매사추세츠 만 식민지의 서드베리 국경 정착촌을 습격했습니다. 인근 정착지에서 온 영국 민병대 중대가 마을을 방어하기 위해 행진했으며, 그 중 2개 중 2개는 원주민의 매복에 끌려 큰 손실을 입었습니다. 이 전투는 1676년 8월 남부 뉴잉글랜드에서 최종 패배하기 전 필립 왕의 전쟁에서 아메리카 원주민이 승리한 마지막 주요 승리였습니다.


매사추세츠주 서드베리 타운

A. 1639년에 설립된 서드베리의 원조 마을

  1. 원래 서드베리 타운은 360년 전인 1639년에 설립(통합)되었습니다.

    1638년 서드베리에 최초의 영구적인 식민지 정착이 이루어졌습니다.

    1500년대와 1600년대 초반에 유럽 탐험가, 모피 무역상, 어부들과 반복적으로 접촉하면서 오늘날 우리가 뉴잉글랜드라고 부르는 지역에 살고 있는 아메리카 원주민 부족에 ​​천연두 및 기타 유럽 질병의 여러 전염병이 발생했습니다.

    1500년 이전에는 이러한 유럽 질병이 우리가 뉴잉글랜드라고 부르는 지역에 존재하지 않았습니다.

  • 한 가지 예는 서드베리 타운 웹사이트의 "Historic Sudbury Trail"에 묘사되고 묘사된 그라인딩 스톤(Grinding Stone)입니다.

    서드베리 정착민들이 점유한 서드베리 땅은 카토(Kato)라는 현지 아메리카 원주민 남자로부터 개별적으로 또는 그의 형제들과 함께 구입했습니다.

  • Massachusetts Bay Colony에는 Plymouth Colony(현재 Plymouth, Bristol 및 Barnstable의 현재 MA 카운티)와 같은 현재 MA 주의 넓은 지역이 포함되지 않았습니다.

    "INLAND"는 대서양으로부터의 조수의 흐름 위를 의미합니다.

  • FIRST(1635)는 원래의 콩코드 타운이었고, 당시와 현재는 Sudbury의 바로 북쪽 이웃이었고 SECOND(1636)는 원래의 Dedham 타운이었습니다.

    필요한 경우 배로 탈출할 가능성이 없었습니다.

    원래의 서드베리 타운에는 현재의 웨이랜드와 메이너드 타운의 대부분이 포함되어 있습니다.

    가장 초기에 점령된 정착지와 최초의 교회/집회소인 "청교도 마을"의 중심 특징이 현재의 Wayland 타운 내에 있는 원래 Sudbury 타운의 동쪽 부분에 있었다는 점에 주목하는 것이 중요합니다.

    최초의 교회/회의소는 1643년 Wayland 타운의 현재 북쪽 묘지가 있던 자리에 세워졌습니다.

    North Cemetery는 Wayland Center의 신호등과 Sudbury 강 다리 사이의 중간쯤에 있는 Old Sudbury Road(27번 국도)의 북동쪽에 위치하고 있습니다.

  • 강은 상류 및 하류 댐에 의해 흐름이 제어되는 오늘날의 잔잔한 서드베리 강보다 1639년 연중 대부분 동안 건너기가 더 어려웠습니다.

    워터타운의 원래 타운 내의 지역은 서쪽으로 원래의 서드베리 타운의 동쪽 경계까지 확장되었습니다.

  • 워터타운의 원래 타운은 현재의 워터타운 타운보다 면적이 훨씬 더 컸으며 현재의 웨스턴 타운(Wayland의 바로 동쪽 이웃)과 월섬도 포함했습니다.

    최초의 서드베리 타운의 초기 정착자들 중 몇몇은 영국 서퍽의 서드베리 또는 그 근처에 살았습니다.

B. 필립 왕의 전쟁과 "Sudbury Fight"

  1. 필립 왕의 전쟁은 북미에서 일어난 전쟁 중 가장 의미심장한 전쟁 중 하나였습니다.

    이 짧은 전쟁은 1675년 6월부터 1676년 8월까지 뉴잉글랜드 남부에서 지속되었습니다.

    그들의 이전 땅에 대한 통제권을 되찾으세요

    그들의 인구는 크게 줄어들어 새로운 식민지 정착을 위해 훨씬 더 많은 땅을 열었습니다.

    이 변화는 뉴잉글랜드에서 시작되어 시간이 지남에 따라 다른 식민지로 퍼졌습니다.

    수백 명의 무방비 상태의 아메리카 원주민 여성, 어린이, 노인들을 한 번에 불태워 죽입니다.

  • 이 짧은 전쟁에서 1인당 전체(아메리카 원주민 + 영국 식민지) 사망률은 이 측정으로 두 번째로 최악의 미국 전쟁인 미국 남북 전쟁보다 약 20배 높았습니다.

    뉴잉글랜드 내 약 100개 도시 중 절반 이상이 손상되거나 파괴되었습니다.

  • 이 시점에서 원래의 서드베리 타운은 국경 타운이 되었고, 서드베리 강 서쪽의 타운 일부(즉, 현재의 서드베리와 메이너드 타운)가 가장 큰 피해를 입었습니다.

    그 공격으로 인한 전투를 "서드버리 파이트"라고 합니다.

    영국 식민지 군인과 민간인의 거의 모든 죽음은 강의 서쪽에서 발생했습니다.

  • 서드베리 민병대와 다른 마을의 군인들은 아메리카 원주민 공격자들과 싸워 그들을 강 동쪽 지역에서 몰아낼 수 있었습니다.
  • 이 시점에서 적대적인 아메리카 원주민 군대는 강의 서쪽 전장을 완전히 장악했으며, 해가 진 후에도 계속 공격했다면 더 많은 식민지 군인과 민간인을 죽일 수 있었을 것입니다.

    그러나 일부 역사가들은 원래의 서드베리 타운에 대한 공격에서 적대적인 아메리카 원주민 군대의 주요 임무는 식량, 무기, 탄약 및 화약의 필요한 보급품을 확보하고 그들이 할 수 있도록 마을을 완전히 파괴하는 것이라고 추측했습니다. 이러한 아이템을 더 많이 보유할 수 있는 해안 마을을 더 쉽게 공격할 수 있습니다.

  • '서드버리 파이트'가 전쟁의 전환점을 일으킨 주역이었다면 '서드버리 파이트'는 매우 중요했다.

C. 서드버리 주민들은 미국 독립 전쟁에서 중요한 역할을 했습니다.

  1. 1776년에 서드베리 타운은 새로 구성된 아메리카 합중국(U. S. A.)의 새로운 매사추세츠 주(MA)의 일부가 되었습니다.

  • 그들은 1775년 4월 19일에 일어난 전투에서 매우 활동적이었고 그 중 2명은 그날 전투에서 사망했습니다.

    개요와 사진을 보려면 Sudbury Companies of Militia and Minute를 참조하십시오(더 큰 버전을 보려면 각 사진을 클릭하십시오).

    1775년의 타운 경계 내의 인구는 2160명이었고, 이는 매사추세츠 주가 될 보스턴 외곽의 다른 많은 타운보다 많았습니다.

  • 첫 번째 서드베리 전쟁에 참전한 노인들도 1775년 4월 19일 80세의 노인이었습니다.

D. 원래의 서드버리 타운에는 더 넓은 지역이 있었습니다.

  1. 현재 서드베리 타운의 24.7평방마일 면적은 1650년 원래 서드베리 타운의 면적보다 훨씬 적습니다.

    원래 서드베리 타운의 지역은 현재의 Wayland 및 Maynard 타운 내의 대부분의 지역과 현재의 서드베리 타운 내의 모든 지역을 포함했습니다.

    현재 Wayland 타운이 분할된 1780년 토지의 주요 공제

    1638년, 1640년, 1649년에 세 차례의 대규모 교부금이 마을에 주어졌습니다.

  • 또한 어려운 지형, 적대적인 아메리카 원주민, 적절한 장비의 부족, 마을 간의 분쟁 등으로 인해 토지 부여의 경계를 적절하게 조사하고 조정하는 데 일반적으로 수년이 걸렸습니다.

    이 삼각형의 땅은 현재 Maynard 타운에 있는 현재 Assabet 강이라고 불리는 강의 바로 북서쪽에 있습니다.

    이스트 서드베리의 새로운 타운에는 1721년에 3.3제곱마일이 추가되었습니다.

    이 12평방마일 지역의 대부분은 서드베리 강의 동쪽이었습니다.

  • Pelham Island는 1639년 Herbert Pelham과 그의 장인 Mr. Walgrave에게 400에이커의 토지를 부여한 곳입니다.

    새로운 Maynard 타운의 나머지 부분은 Stow 타운에서 병합된 Assabet 강의 북서쪽 약 2.1평방 마일의 땅에서 형성되었습니다.

  • 이 2.1평방 마일 면적에는 1730년 서드베리에서 스토우로 이전된 대략 0.4평방 마일 면적의 삼각형이 포함되었습니다.

E. 1780년 이스트 서드버리(나중에 Wayland)의 분할

  1. 바로 위의 섹션에서 언급한 바와 같이, 이스트 서드베리의 새로운 타운은 1730년 이후 서드베리 타운의 동쪽 부분에서 1780년에 형성되었습니다.

    Massachusetts Bay와 Plymouth Colonies의 많은 초기 타운에는 원래 같은 이름의 현재 타운 면적보다 훨씬 더 큰 면적이 있었습니다.

    일반 법원은 일반적으로 다음과 같은 경우에 NEW Town의 형성을 허가했습니다.

    청원서를 제출한 지역의 주민들은 일반 법원이 제시한 특정 요건을 충족하기로 동의했습니다.

    동부 쪽 사람들의 평균 자산 수준이 높기 때문에 타운의 동쪽 쪽이 서쪽 쪽보다 총 평가가 더 높았습니다.

  • 또한 일반 법원의 규칙은 동일한 논리를 사용하여 사전 분할된 타운 레코드를 OLD 타운과 함께 배치했습니다.

    원래 서드베리 타운 서쪽 주민들의 1714년 청원이 일반 법원의 승인을 받았다면 동쪽(지금의 웨이랜드 타운) 주민들은 다음과 같이 했을 것입니다.

    "Sudbury"라는 마을에서 계속 살았습니다.

    1714년까지 몇 년 동안 WEST 측이 옹호한 입장에 찬성하여

    단기(높은 세금) 및

    그녀는 2003년 91세의 나이로 사망했습니다.

F. Sudbury는 지난 60년 동안 인구가 10배 증가했습니다.

  1. 이 섹션에서는 현재의 서드베리 타운만 설명합니다.

    서드베리의 인구는 1950년대에 대략 3배, 1960년대에는 대략 2배가 되었습니다.

    서드베리는 1940년경까지 많은 소규모 농장이 있는 대부분이 시골 지역 사회였습니다.

    사진을 클릭하시면 마을 페이지로 이동합니다.

G. 서드버리 투데이

  1. 이 섹션에서는 현재의 서드베리 타운만 설명합니다.

  • GPS 네비게이션 장치의 목적지 좌표를 북위 42.38256° 및 서경 71.41245°로 설정하면 도달할 수 있습니다.

H. Sudbury의 역사에 대한 정보 출처

  1. 일부 정보는 인터넷에서 구할 수 있습니다.

    타운 기록은 1639년에 최초의 서드베리 타운이 설립된 때부터 시작되며 모든 미국 식민지에서 가장 상세하고 완전한 초기 타운으로 설명됩니다.

    The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts 1638-1889, Alfred Sereno Hudson, 660쪽, The Town of Sudbury, 1889(1968년 Sudbury Press에서 재출판)에는 색인이 없습니다.

  • 색인: A. S. Hudson's History of Sudbury, Massachusetts 1638-1889 & The Annals of Sudbury, Wayland and Maynard, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 119페이지, George D. Max 편집, 수석 색인 작성자: Forrest D. Bradshaw, Sudbury Historical Society, 198

I. 매사추세츠 주에서 "도시"라는 단어의 특별한 의미

  1. Massachusetts Bay Colony에서 "Town"이라는 단어는 다음과 같이 정의되었습니다.

    첫째, 특정 경계 내의 영역

    실제로 일부 MA "타운"에는 시골 지역만 포함되어 있습니다.

    "도시"는 이전에 "도시"였지만 다른 형태의 정부를 사용하도록 주로부터 허가를 받은 개체입니다(인구가 많은 개체에 더 적합함).

    Adobe 뷰어 메뉴에서 "+(더하기)"를 반복해서 클릭하여 특정 영역을 확대합니다.


서드베리 파이트: 전쟁의 전환점

미국 역사의 연대기에는 전쟁 자체의 중심으로 간주되는 몇 가지 전투가 있습니다. 이 전투는 전쟁의 흐름을 바꾸거나 아마도 승리를 보장했을 수 있습니다. 바로 그러한 전투가 King Philip’s War 동안의 Sudbury Fight였습니다. 사진이나 잡지 삽화, 신문 보도나 언론 보도, 역사적으로 생각하는 작가나 시인이 없는 시대에 전쟁이 벌어졌다고 해서 위대한 미국 드라마에 대한 중요성이 줄어들지는 않습니다.

의심의 여지 없이, 서드베리 전투는 식민지 개척자들에게 엄청난 손실을 입혔지만 식민지에 대한 속담의 불을 켜는 역할을 했습니다. 그것은 식민지 개척자들에게 그들의 끔찍한 위치를 알게 했고, 기도하는 인디언들에 대한 의존도를 깨닫게 했고, 그들에게 주위에 집결할 순교 부대를 줬고, 그렇지 않으면 식민지 개척자들이 자기 이익을 제쳐두고 적절한 전쟁을 수행하도록 동기를 부여했습니다.

Sudbury Fight는 확실히 Sudbury에 관한 것이지만 말보로에 관한 것이기도 합니다. 1675년 4월, 적대감은 말보로의 철거와 함께 시작되었으며, 그 전투의 운명적인 날, 아마도 말보로 땅에서 중요한 소규모 교전이 벌어졌고 말보로 병사 수비대 전체가 최후의 대결에서 산산조각이 날 운명이었습니다. 모든 일이 일어난 방법은 다음과 같습니다.

랭커스터 장관의 아내인 Mary Rowlandsand는 1676년 2월 10일 Nipmucs에 의해 체포되어 11주 동안 그들과 함께 있었습니다. 우리는 그녀의 '포로 이야기'에서 인디언들이 마운트 워추셋에서 말보로와 서드베리로 출발하기 전에 관련된 의식을 수행했음을 배웁니다. 영들은 그들에게 큰 승리를 확신시켜 주었습니다. 인디언들은 식량, 식량, 무기, 탄약이 절실히 필요했습니다. 그들은 Menemeset의 sachem인 Muttawmp가 이끌었습니다. 필립 왕(메타콤)이 거기에 있었을지 모르지만 확실히 리더십 역할은 아니었습니다. 약 500명의 전사가 있었던 것으로 추정되지만 Daniel Gookin은 여성들도 참여하여 더 많은 수의 인상을 주었을 것이라고 말합니다.

4월 18일과 19일에 대규모 인디언 무리가 말보로에 와서 남아 있는 모든 것을 황폐화했습니다. 이 파괴는 3월 26일보다 훨씬 더 컸습니다. 4개의 수비대 중 하나를 포함하여 마을의 몇몇 건물을 제외한 모든 건물이 파괴되었습니다. 방황하는 소도 죽임을 당했습니다. Gookin에 따르면 전쟁이 시작될 때 말보로에는 47개의 농가가 있었습니다. 이 중 약 2/3가 4월 공격으로 파괴되었습니다. 수비대에 있는 사람들은 볼 수 있는 것보다 항상 더 많은 인디언들이 매복을 기다리고 있었기 때문에 이러한 습격 동안 인디언과 대면하지 말아야 한다는 것을 경험을 통해 배웠습니다. 인디언들은 수적 우위가 분명할 때만 공격했고, 수비대를 피할 수 있다면 직접 공격하는 것을 피하는 방법을 경험을 통해 배웠습니다. Marlborough는 주요 목표가 아니 었습니다.

영국인과 연합군 대응자들은 Sudbury 주민(약 80명), Concord의 소규모 분견대(12명), Wadsworth 대위와 말보로의 그의 부대(570명), 그리고 역시 Wadsworth와 함께 Marlborough에서 온 Brocklebank 대위와 그의 소규모 부대를 포함했습니다. 10개 이하). 다른 참가자에는 '말 부대'(18명)와 함께 Brookfield에서 Marlborough를 거쳐 온 Captain Cowell, Watertown 민병대(약 40명), Charlestown의 Captain Prentice가 '한 겹의 말' 기병을 포함했습니다. Hunting 대위는 Charlestown에서 왔고 Praying Indians의 군대와 함께 늦게 도착했습니다. 영국의 총 병력은 250명을 넘지 않았지만 그들의 군대는 심하게 분열되어 있었고 그들 중 많은 사람들이 행동을 보지 못했습니다. Wadsworth와 Brocklebank는 인도군의 가장 큰 부분에 직면했습니다.

4월 18일부터 19일까지 말버러는 공격을 받아 불에 탔습니다. 4월 20일, Wadsworth 대위는 Brocklebank에 남아 있는 소규모 수비대를 마침내 교체하기 위해 약 70명의 병사와 함께 Milton에서 왔습니다. 4월 21일 이른 아침, 서드베리 강 동쪽의 인디언들이 오늘날의 웨스턴까지 건물을 공격했습니다. 그 지역의 주둔군은 매복을 두려워하여 대응하지 않았습니다.

오전 600시경에 인디언들은 서드베리 강의 바로 서쪽에 있는 현재의 서드베리에 있는 워터 로(Water Row)에 있는 상대적으로 고립된 헤인즈 집사 수비대를 공격했습니다.

오후 1시경까지 인디언들은 공격을 계속했고 수비대를 불태우려고 했지만 성공하지 못했습니다. 당시 Sudbury는 현재 Wayland에 주로 위치했습니다. 강 서쪽에는 소수의 마을 사람들이 살았습니다. 인디언들은 강 위의 다리를 통제하여 서드베리와 워터타운 민병대가 대응하는 것을 막았습니다. Haynes Garrison 부지는 Old Sudbury Rd에서 짧은 거리에 있는 Water Row에서 계속 유지되고 있습니다. 짧은 방문의 가치가 있습니다.


필립 왕의 전쟁: 1675년

스완지의 습격: 포카노켓 무리는 1675년 6월 20일 스완지의 작은 플리머스 식민지 정착지에 있는 여러 외딴 농가를 공격했습니다. 그들은 마을을 포위하고 5일 후에 파괴하고 몇 명을 더 죽였습니다.

1675년 6월 27일 뉴잉글랜드 지역에서 개기월식이 일어났다. 뉴잉글랜드의 다양한 부족들은 그것을 식민지 개척자들을 공격할 좋은 징조로 여겼습니다.

Plymouth 및 Massachusetts Bay 식민지의 관리들은 6월 28일 Swansea에 대한 공격에 신속하게 대응했으며, Mount Hope에 있는 Wampanoag 마을을 파괴하는 징벌적 군사 원정대를 보냈습니다.

브룩필드 공성전: 전투는 1675년 8월 2일 Nipmucs가 Wheeler의 순진한 파티에 대한 초기 매복으로 이루어졌습니다. 매복 후 매사추세츠 주 브룩필드에 대한 공격이 있었고 결과적으로 식민 세력의 잔해가 포위되었습니다. Nipmuc 군대는 지원군이 도착하여 그들을 몰아낼 때까지 이틀 동안 정착민을 붙잡아 두었습니다.

블러디 브룩 전투: 매사추세츠 만 식민지 민병대와 Nipmuc 인디언 무리 사이의 전투로, 민병대가 수확물을 운반하는 마차 행렬을 호위하는 동안 인디언에 의해 매복되었습니다.

스프링필드: 다음 목표는 코네티컷 강에서 가장 큰 정착지인 매사추세츠주 스프링필드였다. 인디언들은 대부분의 Springfield&rsquos 건물을 불태웠고 정착민들이 Miles Morgan의 집에 숨게 만들었습니다. 인디언 하인 중 한 명이 인디언을 지나 탈출하여 매사추세츠 만 민병대에 알렸습니다. 민병대는 인디언을 몰아내는 데 성공했습니다.

그레이트 늪 싸움: 플리머스 식민지 총독 Josiah Winslow는 Narragansett 부족에 대항하여 식민지 민병대의 연합군을 이끌었습니다. 추운 겨울 때문에 나라간셋은 얼어붙은 늪에 있는 요새로 후퇴했습니다. 1,000명의 민병대와 인도 동맹군이 요새를 공격했습니다.

민병대가 약 600명의 Narragansetts를 죽인 것으로 믿어집니다. 그들은 5에이커가 넘는 요새를 불태웠고 부족의 겨울 상점 대부분을 파괴했습니다.

모호크 인디언 공격: Metacomet은 뉴욕에 겨울 캠프를 설립했습니다. 그가 뉴욕으로 이사한 이유는 분쟁에서 모호크의 도움을 받고자 하는 열망 때문이었습니다. 모호크는 이듬해 2월 Metacomet&rsquos가 지휘하는 500명의 전사에 대한 기습 공격을 시작했습니다.

이 공격으로 Wampanoag의 70~460명이 사망했습니다. 그의 군대는 불구가 되었고, Metacomet은 Algonquian 정착지를 공격하고 보급 부대를 매복한 모호크 군대의 추격을 받아 뉴잉글랜드로 철수했습니다.


전투

청교도 역사가 William Hubbard에 따르면 원주민들이 밤에 서드베리에 침투하여 새벽에 공격하여 집과 헛간을 불태우고 여러 명을 죽였습니다. 서드베리의 많은 영국인 거주자(대부분 오늘날 Wayland의 Sudbury 강 동쪽 제방에 살았음)는 집을 버리고 마을의 요새화된 수비대 집으로 피난처를 찾았습니다. 원주민들은 아침 내내 Water Row Road에 있는 Haynes 수비대를 포위했지만 내부의 영국 민간인들의 강력한 방어에 직면했습니다. 어느 시점에서 원주민은 아마로 가득 찬 불타는 수레를 수비대를 향해 내리막길로 굴렸지만, 그 장비는 피해를 입히기 전에 바위에 부딪혀 흘러넘쳤습니다. Haynes 수비대는 전투 내내 유지되었지만, 저자 George Ellis와 John Morris는 이 포위가 이 지역에 잉글랜드 증원군을 끌어들이기 위한 속임수라고 추측했습니다.

경보를 듣고 약 12명의 콩코드 병사가 서드베리의 방어를 위해 행진했습니다. 그들은 Haynes 수비대의 수비수들이 보는 앞에서 매복을 당하고 학살당했습니다. 콩코드 병사 중 단 한 명만이 목숨을 걸고 탈출했으며, 사망자는 Wayland의 Old Town Bridge 바로 동쪽에 있는 대규모 묘지에 묻혔습니다.

승리에 휩싸인 원주민들은 강을 건너 서드베리의 중앙 정착지를 약탈하기 시작했습니다. 정오 직전, 휴 메이슨 대위가 지휘하는 워터타운의 영국 민병대가 도착하여 기습 부대를 성공적으로 격퇴했습니다.

Mason이 마을을 다시 장악하자 Wadsworth 대위는 약 70명을 이끌고 서쪽에서 접근했고 그의 수는 말보로에 있는 대위 Samuel Brocklebank’s 수비대에 의해 강화되었습니다. Wadsworth & #8217s 부대는 Sudbury를 방어하기 위해 동쪽으로 진군하기 전에 Marlborough에서 잠시 쉬었다. 마을에서 1마일 떨어진 Wadsworth’s 남자들은 약 100명의 무장한 원주민이 숲 속으로 뛰어드는 것을 목격했습니다. 쉽게 처리할 수 있을 것이라고 믿고 민병대는 추격에 나섰다.

원주민은 민병대를 이끌고 현재의 서드베리에 있는 Goodman’s Hill과 Green Hill 사이의 저지대로 이동하여 작은 영국군을 둘러싸고 매복했습니다. 워즈워스는 그린 힐(Green Hill) 정상을 향해 싸우며 부하들에게 광장을 형성하도록 명령하고 여러 원주민의 돌격을 격퇴했습니다. 싸움은 오후 내내 계속되었다. 워터타운 민병대와 영국 기병 2개 중대는 워즈워스를 구출하기 위해 반복적으로 시도했지만 결국 원주민 포위망을 깨는 데 실패했고 후퇴할 수밖에 없었다.

원주민 전사들은 언덕의 마른 덤불에 불을 질렀고, 연기로 포위된 워즈워스의 중대를 질식시켰습니다. 공황 상태에 빠진 영국군은 무너지고 달렸다. Wadsworth와 Brocklebank를 포함한 민병대원의 절반이 이 패배로 사망했습니다. 생존자들은 Mason’s 중대와 기병대가 재편성하고 있던 Boston Post Road에 있는 Goodenow 수비대 집으로 남쪽으로 달아났습니다. 13~14명의 민병대원들도 결국 구조될 때까지 요새화된 Noyes 제분소로 피신했습니다.

인그레이스 매더(Increase Mather)에 따르면 원주민들은 잉글랜드인 5~6명을 산채로 잡아서 벌거벗은 뒤 무자비하게 채찍질을 하게 한 뒤 뜨거운 재를 던졌다. 그들의 다리 살을 자르고 그들의 상처에 불을 붙이며 비참한 생물의 비참한 고통을 보는 것을 기뻐했습니다.” Hubbard는 또한 영국 포로들이 고문을 당했다고 주장하지만, 그곳에 있었던 sachem Weetamoo의 포로 Mary Rowlandson 전투 중 원주민 캠프는 그녀의 회고록에 그것에 대해 언급하지 않습니다.


보충 자료(온라인/오프라인 리소스)

  1. 필립 왕의 전쟁, 조지 M. 보지(Leominster, MA: 1896)
  2. 트레이시, 사이러스 M., 헨리 휘트랜드. 매사추세츠주 에식스 카운티의 표준 역사, 마을과 도시의 역사와 설명과 함께 최초의 정착지부터 현재까지의 카운티 역사를 수용합니다. 미국에서 가장 역사적인 카운티. 보스턴: C.F. Jewett &, 1878. 인쇄. 디지털 사본: http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/

19세기 전쟁

1811년 티피카누 전투에서 Shawnee 추장 Tecumseh는 일리노이와 인디애나로 이주하는 정착민들의 흐름을 늦추기 위해 연합을 결성했습니다. 지역 주지사 윌리엄 헨리 해리슨(William Henry Harrison)은 군인과 민병대를 이끌고 Shawnee’s 마을을 파괴했지만 일시적인 휴전에 동의했습니다. Tecumseh’s 형제 “The Prophet”는 휴전을 무시하고 공격했습니다. 그러나 해리슨은 승리했고 쇼니는 북쪽으로 후퇴했다.

1812년의 전쟁은 영국과 미국, 그리고 각각의 인도 동맹국 사이에 벌어졌습니다. Tecumseh’s는 Tippecanoe 전투에서 패배하여 영국군을 지원하게 되었습니다. 템스 전투(1812년 전쟁의 많은 전투 중 하나)에서 온타리오의 템스 강을 따라 벌어진 영국군과 Tecumseh’ 연합군은 수적으로 열세였고 다시 쉽게 패배했습니다. Tecumseh는 전투에서 사망하여 많은 인도인이 영국의 대의를 포기하게 만들었습니다.

1814년까지 친미적인 크릭(로어 크릭)과 미국인을 분개한 크릭(어퍼 크릭)이 내전을 벌이고 있었습니다. 3월 27일 앨라배마에서 열린 호스슈 벤드 전투에서 미국 민병대가 로어 크릭과 함께 어퍼 크릭을 물리치기 위해 싸웠습니다. 전투는 포트 잭슨 조약에 서명하고 거의 2백만 에이커의 땅을 양도하는 크릭 크릭으로 끝났습니다.


여러가지가 바뀌었다

1676년 4월 21일, 500명에서 1,500명 사이의 인디언 전사들이 보스턴에 가장 가까이 접근했습니다. 서드버리 파이트. 그것은 동안 일어났다 왕 필립의 전쟁 사망하거나 부상당한 남성 인구의 비율로 측정한 1675~1676년 미국 역사상 가장 피비린내 나는 정착민-인디언 분쟁(THC는 포스트에서 전쟁의 기원, 과정 및 기억에 대해 썼습니다 블러디 브룩). 로드 아일랜드/매사추세츠 국경 근처에 살았던 필립 왕(본명 Metcomet)은 그와 관련된 사건이 ​​전쟁을 촉발했습니다.

(시카고 대학을 통해 조지 엘리스와 존 모리스(1906)의 필립 왕 전쟁 지도.)

1675~1676년의 늦은 겨울까지 인디언의 공격으로 메사추세츠 중부의 마을은 포기해야 했습니다. 코네티컷 리버 밸리 마을의 정착민들은 보호를 위해 여러 마을에 모여 있었고 로드 아일랜드, 코네티컷, 뉴햄프셔 및 메인의 작은 정착촌이 공격을 받았습니다.

3월에 마운트 워추세츠(Mt Wachusetts)에서 인디언 전사들의 모임(위 지도 참조)은 보스턴 방향으로 동쪽의 정착지를 공격하기로 결정했으며, 서드베리가 즉각적인 목표였습니다(보고에 따르면 콩코드에 대한 공격을 거부한 후). 말보로, 그로턴, 랭커스터는 순식간에 포위되어 불탔고 4월 20일 저녁까지 전사들은 서드베리 외곽에 있었습니다.

당시 서드베리의 경계는 오늘날의 Wayland와 북서쪽의 Maynard를 포함하는 오늘날과 달랐습니다. 도시 인구의 대부분은 현재 Wayland에 있는 Sudbury 강의 동쪽에 위치해 있었습니다. 동부 매사추세츠는 2세기 이상 동안 조밀하게 정착해 왔지만 17세기 후반에는 국경에 있었습니다. 서드베리의 바로 서쪽에 있는 새로운 도시 말보로 너머에는 코네티컷 계곡 마을에 도착할 때까지 삼림 지대 한가운데에 흩어져 있는 정착촌만 있었습니다.

서드베리와 말보로와 같은 모든 변방 도시들은 서부 광야로부터의 인디언 습격으로부터 보호하기 위해 지역 민병대와 보호를 위해 강화된 선택된 농가에 의존했으며, 포위와 가족이 사용할 수 있는 총과 화약으로 잘 공급되었습니다. 곤경에 처했을 때 도망칠 수 있었다. 서드베리에는 6개의 수비대 집이 있었습니다.

4월 21일, 서드베리 정착촌의 수비수는 약 200명이었다. 다른 마을의 민병대 몇 개와 함께 약 80명의 지역 민병대가 그날 이 지역에 있었습니다.

이 작전은 수비대 주택에 대한 인디언들의 이른 아침 공격과 서드베리 강을 건너 마을 동부의 일부 주택이 불타면서 시작되었습니다. 주요 목표는 오전 6시에 포위가 시작된 강 서쪽에 있는 Haynes Garrison 집이었습니다.


(슬라이드 공유의 스크린샷 말보로의 필립 왕 전쟁에 대한 훌륭한 프레젠테이션입니다. 볼 가치가 있습니다. 여기에서 찾을 수 있습니다.)

말보로에 주둔한 부대는 70명 정도의 중대였다. 사무엘 워즈워스 대위. 정착촌의 대부분은 이미 불타버렸지만, 워즈워스의 일행은 인디언들이 모여드는 것을 인지하지 못한 채 서드베리를 통해 행군했던 수비대 집 중 한 곳에 주둔하고 있었습니다. 해고를 하자마자 Wadsworth는 약 50명의 부하를 데리고 Sudbury로 진군하기 시작했습니다. 서드베리와 말보로 사이의 다른 도로에서 에드워드 코웰 대위가 지휘하는 18명의 기병 중대가 매복을 당했고 인디언들이 철수하기 전에 그의 부하 4명이 사망했고 그는 조심스럽게 서드베리로 향했습니다.

한편, 휴 메이슨 대위가 이끄는 워터타운에서 온 약 40명의 다른 중대가 경보를 받자 소집되어 서드베리의 구호를 위해 서쪽으로 행진하기 시작했습니다. 그들이 서드베리로 진격하자 그들은 전선에서 철수하는 인디언들을 발견했습니다.

Haynes Garrison의 집에 대한 포위는 이른 오후까지 계속되었고 인디언들은 집에 불을 지르려고 시도했지만 실패했습니다. 어느 시점에서 집에 있던 사람들은 12명의 콩코드 병사들이 서드베리에 있는 사람들을 돕기 위해 강을 따라 남쪽으로 이동하는 동안 매복을 당하고 한 명만 탈출하는 것을 공포에 질려 지켜보았습니다. 이른 오후에 인디언들이 철수하면서 수비대 하우스 포위가 끝났습니다.

인디언 철수 이유가 밝혀진 것은 워즈워스의 중대가 또 다른 매복에 빠졌고 그의 군대는 그 지역의 모든 인디언이 그것을 전멸시켜야 할 만큼 충분히 컸기 때문입니다. Sudbury/Marlboro 경계 근처의 Green Hill에 위치를 잡은 Wadsworth의 부하들은 그날 오후 필사적인 투쟁을 벌였습니다.

Samuel Wadsworth는 이미 전쟁에서 경험이 풍부한 전투 대장이었습니다. 그는 1632년에 The Lion에 그의 아버지 Christopher와 함께 2살 때 Boston에 도착한 저명한 가정에서 왔습니다. Christopher의 형인 William Wadsworth는 같은 배에 도착하여 계속해서 The Lion의 창립자 중 한 명이 되었습니다. 하트퍼드, 코네티컷. Young Samuel은 1656년 보스턴 남서부의 Milton으로 이사하기 전에 Plymouth 근처의 Duxbury에서 자랐습니다. 그곳에서 그와 그의 아내 Abagail은 300에이커 규모의 농장에서 8명의 자녀(5명은 성인이 됨)를 키웠습니다. 1676년 6세였던 그의 아들 중 하나인 Benjamin은 1725년부터 1737년까지 Harvard College의 총장이 되었습니다. 1726년 Benjamin을 위해 지어진 Harvard의 Wadsworth House는 여전히 대학에서 두 번째로 오래된 건물로 존재하며 조지 워싱턴이 1776년 7월 대륙군을 지휘하기 위해 도착했을 때의 첫 번째 사령부.

그의 경험에도 불구하고 Wadsworth는 전투에서 살아남지 못했고 28명의 병사도 살아남지 못했습니다. 생존자들은 포위망을 빠져나와 수비대 집에서 피난처를 찾을 수 있었습니다. 그린 힐에서의 투쟁에 대한 자세한 내용은 거의 알려져 있지 않습니다. 이 설명은 1906년 Ellis와 Morris의 전쟁에 관한 책에서 발췌한 것입니다.

(Ellis & Morris 책의 시카고 대학 페이지에서 그린 힐에 있는 워즈워스 기념비)

그날 저녁 약 125명의 서드베리 가족과 생존한 민병대가 강 서쪽에 있는 수비대 집에 모여 다음 날 인도의 추가 공격을 예상했습니다. 그러나 새벽에는 아무 일도 일어나지 않았습니다. 인디언들은 서쪽으로 철수했다.

서드버리 전투는 필립 왕의 전사들의 전술적 승리였습니다. 그들은 Cowell과 Wadsworth의 사령부와 Concord 부대에 대한 세 번의 매복 작전을 성공적으로 수행했으며 강 서쪽의 Sudbury 대부분을 파괴했습니다. 52명의 민병대가 사망한 반면 인디언 손실은 4~6명 정도로 적었을 수 있습니다. 철수가 발생한 이유는 아직 알려지지 않았지만 필립 왕은 공세를 재개하지 않았고 주도권은 빠르게 식민지로 옮겨갔고 올해 말까지 전쟁이 끝났습니다.

THC는 항상 Sudbury Fight의 이벤트에 관심이 있었습니다. 1973년부터 1975년까지 그는 서드베리에 살았고 Haynes Garrison 집의 기초는 여전히 강에 인접한 Water Row를 따라 볼 수 있었습니다. Haynes Garrison House는 1876년까지 서 있었습니다. 이 판화는 Sudbury의 역사에서 따온 것입니다. 킹스 하이웨이를 따라). 그와 Mrs THC는 올해 초에 사이트를 다시 방문하여 다음 사진을 찍었습니다.


입스위치, 브룩필드 대학살 및 필립 왕과의 전쟁

1660년 5월, 식민지 개척자들의 그룹은 Ipswich에서 서부 매사추세츠의 인디언 마을 Quaboag로 이사했고 그곳을 Brookfield로 개명했습니다. Indian attacks known as “King Philip’s War” resulted in the destruction of Brookfield and the deaths of a dozen settlers on August 2, 1675. English soldiers accompanied by Mohegan allies were eventually able to break the siege at Brookfield, with casualties on both sides. Hatfield, Deerfield and Northfield were attacked in September, and Springfield was burned on October 5th.

The leader of the Indian attacks was Metacomet (aka Metacom) leader of the Pokanoket tribe, known by the English as King Philip, who led a bloody uprising of Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes that lasted over a year and destroying twelve frontier towns, the bloodiest war, per capita, in North American history.

In January of 1675, John Sassamon, a Christian Native-American, told Plymouth’s governor, Josiah Winslow, that King Philip was planning an attack against the colonists. Later that month Sassamon was found dead and three Wampanoags were arrested, tried and executed them at Plymouth plantation on June 8. On June 20, Pokanoket warriors looted and set fire to homes in Swansea, then attacked residents returning from church. Officials from Plymouth and Boston responded on June 28 with a military expedition that destroyed the Wampanoag town at Mount Hope (modern Bristol, Rhode Island). The destruction of their village enraged the Narragansett and brought them into into the conflict. Philip escaped but the women and children of the village were sold into slavery by the English.

Ipswich settlers of Brookfield

William Prichard arrived in the colony in 1630 and settled in Ipswich in 1649. In the summer of 1660. By 1675 he was a selectman of Brookfield and serving as Sergeant in the military. On August 2, 1675, Sergeant Prichard, Corporal Coy, and Sergeant Ayres, were slain in an ambush at Braintree. William Pritchard’s son was outside the garrison at Brookfield when the attack began and was slain by the Indians. They cut off his head, tossed it about like a ball in sight of the settlers, and then set on a pole against his dead father’s house.

John Ayres Sr. was a prominent Ipswich resident who promoted the settlement in Quaboag. He also was killed in the ambush by the Indians in New Braintree the same day as the Brookfield massacre. His wife Susannah Ayres survived the attack at Brookfield and moved back to Ipswich with her six sons and one daughter.

Daniel Hovey and his wife Abigail joined the new town in 1668 accompanied by their five younger children, Thomas aged 20, James 18, Joseph 15, Abigail 13, and Nathaniel 11. Their older children, Daniel Jr. and John remained in Ipswich. Daniel Hovey moved again to Hadley and returned to Ipswich after the massacre.

Metacomet’s forces attacked the settlement at Brookfield and tried to set it on fire.

In the early moments of that siege, Daniel’s son James was overtaken and killed by the Indians somewhere near his house. His wife Priscilla and their children took refuge in a tavern surrounded by hundreds of hostile Nipmucs, who tried unsuccessfully to burn it. After three days Major Simon Willard arrived with 46 troops, and they chased off the attackers. James Hovey was buried with the eleven other victims, and the traumatized survivors returned to Ipswich or dispersed to other better-protected communities along the Massachusetts frontier.

After the attack on Brookfield, Priscilla took her three children to join James’ brother Daniel Hovey in Hadley. She left her eldest son also named Daniel in Hadley to be raised and educated by James’ other brother Thomas. The widow returned to Ipswich with her daughter Priscilla and the infant, James Jr. She filed an inventory of the estate in March 16, 1676 and received a small stipend as a war widow from the General Court of Ipswich. James’ death was officially listed as a military casualty.

John Warner and his father William Warner were among the first settlers in the Ipswich Colony, arriving in 1635. The father died in Ipswich in 1648. John Warner married Priscilla, daughter of Mark Symonds of Ipswich where they continued to live for about twenty years. In 1670, he sold to John Woodam his property in Ipswich, consisting of his dwelling house, barn, orchard, and 7 acres of upland “which formerly was part of my father Warner’s meadow in Ipswich.” and he and Priscilla moved to Brookfield. He was one of three men there who arranged the transfer of land with the Indians, built the first house in the new town and is referred to as the “Father of Brookfield”. John and Priscilla survived the attack and retreated with their younger children to Hadley, MA to join their oldest son Mark Warner. Priscilla died in 1688 and John died in 1692.

King Philip’s War

The following excerpts are from Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony by Thomas Franklin Waters (with additional information added):

Since the year 1653, there had been no fear of Indian assaults. The settlers went to work in the fields, or assembled for public worship, and journeys were made over the lonely roads through the forests without suspicion of danger. But, at last, there were signs of an approaching rupture in the peaceful relations between the English and the Indians.

A chief of commanding influence, Metacun, the son of Massasoit, known commonly by his English name, Philip, dwelt at Mount Hope, near the present town of Bristol, Rhode Island. He had sold his tribal lands so extensively, that his people began to feel the pressure of civilization. The settlers had dealt unfairly in many instances in their traffic with the natives. They had deprived them of their arms, on pretence of treachery, and had occupied their lands without purchase.

Brooding over his wrongs, Philip organized a plot for the extermination of his dangerous neighbors. It was discovered by a Christian Indian, who reported it to the authorities of Plymouth Colony. Philip condemned the informer to death, and he was slain in January, 1674. Three Indians were brought to trial for the crime and sentenced to death. Two of them were executed in June, 1675, and Philip began at once to plan for his revenge.

On the 24th of June, 1675, the first blow was struck. The town of Swansea in the Plymouth colony was attacked and eight or nine of the English were slain. A foot company under Captain Daniel Henchman and Captain Thomas Prentice with a troop of horse were dispatched from Boston toward Mount Hope on the 26th. The state of affairs was critical and with true Puritan reverence, the 29th of June was set apart as a day of humiliation and prayer. The troops met the enemy near Swansea and some lives were lost on both sides.

It soon became evident that a general Indian uprising was imminent. On the 14th of July, Mendon, about 36 miles from Boston and within the bounds of the Massachusetts Colony, was assailed and four or five of the settlers were killed.

In May 1660, a group of colonists moved from Ipswich to the Indian town Quaboag in Western Massachusetts, which they renamed Brookfield. Indian attacks resulted in the destruction of Brookfield and the deaths of a dozen settlers on August 2, 1675. The full horrors of an Indian war were revealed in the bloody affair at Brookfield. Captain Edward Hutchinson, accompanied by his troopers, and some of the men of Brookfield went to the place agreed on with the Indians for a conference, near the town of Brookfield, and not meeting them there, pushed on to find them. In a narrow defile, shut in by a rocky hill on one side and a swamp on the other, they were suddenly fired on, and in the short, sharp fight that followed eight were slain.

Retreating to the town, they made their stand in the garrison house. The Indians assailed them hotly with loud yells. One young man, the son of William Pritchard, who had been slain in the morning, was killed while venturing away from the garrison. They cut off his head, tossed it about in plain sight of the beleaguered settlers, and then set it on a pole against the door of his father’s house. The Indians endeavored repeatedly to burn the garrison house, and, after several unsuccessful attempts, were just completing a long cart filled with combustibles, and provided with poles, with which they could push it against the house. A providential shower wet the kindling wood so thoroughly that it would not burn readily.

The news of this affair must have caused many a panic in Ipswich. The plantation six miles square, near Quabaug Ponds, had been granted by the General Court in 1660 to some persons of Ipswich, if twenty families and an approved minister be there in three years. In 1667, on the 15th of May, the Court voted that the time be extended for a year from the next midsummer, as only six or seven families had settled there. John Warner and William Pritchard removed from Ipswich to the new settlement in the year it was granted, and Captain John Ayres was a resident there in 1672. Sergeant Prichard, Corporal Coy, and Sergeant Ayres, were slain in an ambush at Braintree. The tale of the tragic death of Ayres and the Pritchards, and the sufferings of their families in the garrison house made the war vivid, real and terrible.

The Essex regiment was commanded by Major Denison. The Ipswich company had for its officers, Denison as Captain, Samuel Appleton as Lieutenant and Thomas Burnham as Ensign. The first Essex troop, recruited in Salem and vicinity, and the second Essex troop, which was composed of Ipswich and Newbury men, were also attached to this regiment. Upon the breaking out of the war, Denison had been appointed commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts troops. In the latter part of July a levy of troops had been made in Essex County and immediately after the disaster at Brookfield, Captain Lathrop of Salem was sent with a company from Salem and the neighboring towns, including some from Ipswich. Captain Beers also marched from Watertown with his command. The troops gathered at Brookfield and Hadley, but no body of Indians was discovered. Many towns were threatened and the soldiers were kept on the move.

With the beginning of September, the war was pressed most vigorously along the Connecticut River. On the first of that month, Deerfield was burned and one man killed. Two or three days later, the Indians attacked Squakeag, now Northfield, where they killed nine or ten of the people. The next day Captain Beers, with thirty-six men, marched to relieve the garrison at Squakeag, not hearing of the disaster of the day before, and was ambushed by a large number of Indians. He made a brave defence, but after a valiant fight, he and about twenty of his men were slain.

Rev. William Hubbard, in his History of the Indian Wars, remarks, in this connection:

“Here the barbarous villains showed their insolent Rage and Cruelty, more than ever before, cutting off the Heads of some of the Slain, and fixing them upon Poles near the Highway and not only so, but one was found with a Chain hooked into his under Jaw, and so hung up on the Bow of a Tree (’tis feared he was hung up alive) by which Means they thought to daunt and discourage any that might come to their Relief, and also to terrify those that should be Spectators with the Beholding so sad an object insomuch that Major Treat with his Company, going up two days after, to fetch of the Residue of the Garrison, were solemnly affected with that doleful Sight, which made them make the more Haste to bring down the Garrison, not waiting for any Opportunity to take Revenge upon the Enemy, having but a hundred with him, too few for such a purpose. Captain Appleton going up after him, met him coming down, and would willingly have persuaded them to have turned back, to see if they could have made any Spoil upon the Enemy but the greatest Part advised to the Contrary, so that they were all forced to return with what they could carry away leaving the Rest for a Booty to the Enemy, who shall ere long pay a sad Reckoning for their Robberies and Cruelties, in the Time appointed.”

Samuel Appleton

Captain Samuel Appleton had taken the field with his company about the first of September, and he and his Ipswich soldiers had a gruesome beginning of their warfare, marching over the road lined with the dismembered bodies of their fellow soldiers, and the smoking ruins of the farms. The troops were distributed at garrisons at Northampton, Hatfield, Deerfield and Hadley. Captain Appleton was stationed at Deerfield and arrived there about the tenth of September. On the 17th of August, Gen. Denison sent orders from Boston to Major Richard Waldron to proceed to Pennicook (Concord), “supposed to be the rendezvous of ye enemy where you may expect to meet Capt. Mosely, who is ordered thither.” He instructed him to take a surgeon with him, and informed him that the main body of the soldiers was at Hadley.

The Battle of Bloody Brook was fought on September 18, 1675 between English colonial militia from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a band of Indians led by the Nipmuc sachem Muttawmp. The Indians ambushed colonists escorting a train of wagons carrying the harvest from Deerfield to Hadley during King Philip’s War. They killed at least 40 militia men and 17 teamsters out of a company that included 79 militia. Image from “Pioneers in the settlement of America” by William A. Crafts

Bloody Brook

On Sunday the 12th of September, the soldiers and settlers at Deerfield gathered for worship in the stockade. Returning, the north garrison was ambushed with the loss of one man captured. Appleton rallied his men and attacked them and drove them off, but the north fort had been plundered and set on fire, and much of the settlers’ stock stolen. As he had not force enough to guard the forts and engage in offensive operations, the Indians still hung round insultingly and burned two more houses. A storm prevented action that night, but the next night a party of volunteers, with a few from Hadley, and some of Lathrop’s men came up to the relief of the town.

On the 14th, the united forces under Appleton marched to Pine Hill. Spies had doubtless reported the arrival of reinforcements, and the Indians had all fled. It was decided that Deerfield should be abandoned, and as there was a large amount of corn already threshed, it was loaded on carts and Captain Lathrop was detailed to guard the teams on their way to Hadley. No Indians were known to be in the neighborhood. The Ipswich Historian, Rev. Hubbard wrote, “Upon September 18, “that most fatal Day, the Saddest that ever befell New England, as the Company were marching along with the Carts never apprehending Danger so near, were suddenly set upon, and almost all cut off (not above seven or eight escaping).”

The number of the slain, including Captain Lathrop, as reported by Rev. John Russell of Hadley in a letter written shortly afterward, was seventy-one. Only a few escaped. Among the dead, were several Ipswich men, Thomas Hobbs, Caleb Kimball, John Littlehale, Thomas Manning, Thomas Mentor, and Jacob Wainwright. They were all buried in a single grave near the place where they fell. Rev. Mr. Hubbard narrates:

“As Captain Mosely came upon the Indians in the Morning, he found them stripping the Slain, amongst whom was one Robert Dutch of Ipswich, having been sorely wounded by a Bullet that grazed to his Skull, and then mauled by the Indian Hatchets, was left for dead by the savages, and stript by them of all but his skin yet when Captain Mosely came near, he almost miraculously, as one raised from the Dead, came towards the English, to their no small Amazement, by whom being received and clothed, he was carried off to the next Garrison, and is living and in perfect Health at this Day.”

Battle at Hadley

Captain Appleton and his Ipswich company were stationed at Hadley, and his value as a military leader was becoming more and more evident to the Council of the Col ony. Instructions were sent to Captain Wayte: “It is ordered that there be a commission issued forth to Capt. Samuel Appleton to command a foot Company of 100 men In the service of ye country. On the 5th of October, Captain Mosely wrote from Hadley, “Major Pinchon is gone with Capt. Appleton with a company of above 190 soldiers. They hurried to Springfield but found the town in flames, and the Indians already fled. Major Pynchon’s grist mills, Rev. Mr. Glover’s Parsonage with his valuable library, and nearly all the buildings were destroyed.” Rev. John Russell wrote a letter which described the disaster, and lamented that Hadley would be the next to drink the bitter cup.

Captain Samuel Appleton was Commander in chief at the headquarters at Hadley. The position to which he was called was full of difficulty. The Indians had ravaged the country so sorely and had inflicted such terrible losses upon the forces sent against them, that a general feeling of discouragement prevailed. On the 19th of October, an attack was made upon Hatfield, but Appleton had foreseen the danger and provided for it. Mr. Hubbard gives a vivid narrative of the fight:

“According to the good Providence of Almighty God, Major Treat was newly returned to Northampton, Captain Mosely and Captain Poole were then garrisoning the said Hatfield, and Captain Appleton quartering at Hadley, when on the sudden seven or eight hundred of the Enemy came upon the Town in all Quarters, having first killed or taken two or three Scouts belonging to the Town, and seven more belonging to Captain Mosely his company. But they were so well entertained on all hands where they attempted to break in upon the Town, that they found it too hot for them, by the Resolution of the English instantly beaten off, without doing much harm. Captain Appleton’s Sergeant was mortally wounded just by his side, another bullet passing through his own hair, by that whisper telling him that Death was very near but did no other harm.”

Major Appleton led a two-hour attack against Metacom’s fighters in Springfield which resulted in the first setback by the Indians. This was the first decisive defeat inflicted upon the Indians. Col. Appleton began the distribution of the Massachusetts troops among the exposed towns. Twenty-nine soldiers under Captain Aaron Cooke were stationed at Westfield. Twenty-nine were sent to Springfield under command of Major Pynchon, Lieut. Clarke and twenty-six men. 197 were left at Northampton, thirty at Hadley commanded by Captain Jonathan Poole, and thirty-six at Hatfield.

Return to Ipswich

Having made this provision for the defense of the frontier towns, Major Appleton marched home, probably about November 24th. A feeling of comfortable security filled the town, when the Major and his soldiers returned. A few weeks before, the Indians had appeared at Salisbury, and General Denison marched thither with his troops. The outposts at Topsfield and Andover were greatly alarmed at seeing Indians.

“It is hardly imaginable,” Denison wrote from Ipswich on the 28th of October, “the panic and fear that is upon our upland plantations, and scattered places, respecting their habitations.” The General Court on October 13th had ordered a guard of two men, appointed by General Denison or the chief commander of the town of Ipswich, to keep watch at Deputy Governor Symonds’s Argilla farm, as it was “so remote from neighbours, and he so much necessitated to be on the country’s service.”

No doubt the distracted people slept more soundly, and gathered hope and strength. But the interval of calm was short. Scarcely had Appleton and his men returned from their campaign, when they were summoned into the field for a united assault upon the Narragansett Indians in their stronghold.

The Great Swamp Fight

Major Appleton marched away on the eighth of December as the whole Massachusetts force mustered on Dedham Plain on the ninth. There were five companies, commanded by Captains Mosely, Gardner, Davenport, Oliver and Johnson, beside the company of which Major Appleton was Captain. Major Appleton led his force on that winter’s day, December 9th, a long march of twenty-seven miles to “Woodcoks” now Attleboro, and another day brought them to Seekonk. On December 14th, as his scouts had brought in some Indians, he led his troops, foot and horse, on a detour into the Indian country, and burned a hundred and fifty wigwams, killed seven of the enemy and brought in eight prisoners. As the army advanced, several of the soldiers, straggling from their companies, were slain by roving bands of Indians.

By the 18th of December, the Connecticut and Plymouth soldiers had joined the Massachusetts regiment, and as provisions were scarce and the cold was sharp, an advance was made at once. A heavy snowstorm came on. There was no shelter for officers or common soldiers, and after a long and trying march, they lay down in the snow, “finding no other defense all that Night, save the open air, nor other covering than a cold and moist fleece of snow.” At daylight the march was resumed.

Rev. Mr. Hubbard, recording the substance of many conversations with the Major and his men, informs us that “They marched from the break of the next day, December 19th till one of the Clock in the Afternoon, without either Fire to warm them, or Respite to take any Food save what they could chew on their March.” They wallowed through snow, two or three feet deep, with many frostbitten in their hands and feet, fourteen or fifteen miles to the edge of a swamp, where their Indian guides affirmed the Narragansetts had their stronghold. Captain Mosely and Captain Davenport led the vanguard, Captain Gardner and Captain Johnson followed, Major Appleton and Captain Oliver brought up the rear of the Massachusetts force. The Plymouth soldiers with General Winslow marched in the center, and the Connecticut men under Major Treat formed the rear guard of the little army.

Depiction of the colonial assault on the Narragansetts’ fort in the Great Swamp Fight in December 1675

Notwithstanding the hardships of their march, the soldiers rushed impetuously into the swamp, without waiting the word of command, and pursued the Indians, who had shown themselves to the fort, which had been built on an island, and strongly defended with an impassable palisade of logs, stuck upright, and a dense hedge. The Indians held their ground with great determination, but after several hours of sharp fighting, their wigwams were set on fire, and they were put to rout with great slaughter. It was a dearly bought victory. Three of the six Massachusetts Captains, Davenport, Gardner and Johnson, and three Connecticut captains lay dead, and many officers and men were wounded.

The short winter day was spent before the battle was done, and as the Indian fort was deemed an unsafe camp, the desperate alternative remained of marching back to the nearest settlement, full fifteen or sixteen miles, after night had fallen. Bearing their dead, and helping the wounded, the survivors struggled back. The horrors of that night march pass imagination. Many of the wounded perished by the way, and the strongest were completely spent before a safe shelter was reached. Four of Major Appleton’s soldiers were killed, Samuel Taylor of Ipswich, Isaac Ellery of Gloucester, Daniel Rolfe of Newbury and Samuel Tyler of Rowley. Eighteen were wounded, including John Denison, George Timson, and Thomas Dow of Ipswich.

It is believed that up to 150 Indian inhabitants, many of them women, children, and the elderly, were killed or burned alive, while others fled across the swamp and died from exposure. Seventy of the Colonial forces died, and many more wounded. A second body of recruits was sent to Major Appleton a little later. Provisions were scant, and men and horses were sorely pinched with hunger. Many of the horses were killed and eaten and the campaign was long remembered as the Hungry March.

The soldiers arrived home early in February, and Major Appleton seems to have retired from active service. Within a week after their return, the weary soldiers, scarcely restored from the exhausting ordeal of the Hungry March, were again in the field. Alarming reports had come of the disaster at Lancaster, where Nipmucs from Nashaway staged an attack, led by the sachem Monoco. Redfield was soon burned, and on February 25th, Weymouth was partly destroyed. In March, Groton was surprised and burnt, and the inhabitants fled in terror, abandoning the settlement. Wrentham was abandoned in similar fashion. The Indians moved rapidly from point to point small parties appeared suddenly in the most unexpected localities, killing a man or two, and then disappearing, “skulking up and down in swamps and holes, to assault any that occasionally looked never so little into the woods.”

The towns in the Connecticut Valley were panic struck. A new army was immediately ordered, and fresh levies of foot and horse soldiers were ordered by the General Court on the 21st of February. Cornet John Whipple of Ipswich, who had already served with honor in the earlier campaigns, was made Captain of the new troop of horse, and Major General Denison was ordered to Marlborough to dispose the soldiers gathered there under the several captains, and take charge of the campaign. Captain Brocklebank of Rowley was placed in command of the Marlborough garrison.

Attack on Sudbury

Alarming reports were soon brought to Ipswich of the approach of marauding bands. General Denison was at home, and his letter of the 19th of March to Secretary Rawson reveals a time of alarm and nervous apprehension of an attack, in which his presence must have been a source of great comfort to the community. But the hours wore on, no alarm was given, and gradually confidence returned to the distressed town. The fortification was around the meeting-house, and one of the garrison houses was near the River. Every able-bodied man was trained and disciplined. Every family was anxious. Meanwhile the men at the front were eager for release. Spring was at hand and the planting of their fields required their presence.

On April 21st, the neighboring town of Sudbury was surprised. Captain Wadsworth was sent from Boston with fifty soldiers to relieve the Marlborough garrison. They made a hurried march of twenty-five miles, reaching Marlborough at night. Finding that the enemy was at Sudbury ten miles away, without allowing themselves time for rest, they hastened thither, with Captain Brocklebank and some of the garrison, accompanying them. Near Sudbury, they met a small body of Indians, who withdrew at their approach and lured them into the woods. There a great body assailed them. The weary soldiers made a brave defense, but they were hopelessly outnumbered. Captain Wadsworth fell, and Captain Brocklebank, whom Mr. Hubbard characterizes as “a choice spirited Man, much lamented by the Town of Rowley, to which he belonged.” More than thirty soldiers, it is believed, were slain, as they were making their retreat from the hilltop, where they had made a brave stand for four hours. This was the last great tragedy of the War. Later operations against the Indians were uniformly successful.

Death of King Philip

On August 12, 1676, Philip’s secret headquarters in Mount Hope near Bristol Rhode Island was discovered. Captain Church had been informed of Philip’s secret hideout by one of his warriors whose brother was killed by Philip for offering to negotiate with the English. Philip was slain along and his wife and children taken captive and sold into slavery in the West Indies. Five of his warriors died by his side while the others escaped through the woods. In Plymouth, King Philip’s body was drawn and quartered and his head was publicly displayed on a stake.

The Eastern War

Many of the Indians, who had been scattered by the successful tactics on the Connecticut, made their way to the Indian tribes in the neighborhood of Casco Bay, and incited them to rise against the white men. Hostilities began there in September, 1676, and attacks were soon made on Oyster River and Durham, N. H., and Exeter. An old man was shot down on the road to Hampton. York suffered on the 26th of September, and the whole country about the Piscataqua was in alarm. Men, women and little children were killed and scalped, houses and barns burned, and cattle driven away.

Mr. Hubbard gives a distressing account of the outrages committed by the Indians in the neighborhood of the Kennebec river. The whole country was a scene of desolation, houses burned, crops destroyed, and many lives lost. Early in October, the alarming tidings came that the settlement at Cape Neddick had been burned. Major Appleton was dispatched to the Eastward under orders, dated October 19th, to take charge of all the forces. He seems to have declined this responsibility, as the order was rescinded.

Mugg’s visit to Ipswich

A vigorous march was made to Ossipee, where it was reported there was a great gathering of Indians. The confrontations spread into a series of battles in Maine known as the Eastern War. On October 12, 1676 about 100 Indian warriors made an assault on an English settlement at Black Point near Portland, Maine and took a number of captives. A couple of weeks later an Arosagunticook chief named Mugg Hegon visited General Dennison in Piscataqua (Portsmouth) and declared that the Indians were desirous of peace. Mugg was taken, perhaps forcibly, to Boston for negotiations with a promise of safe passage, and on Nov. 6 he concluded a treaty with the English for the Eastern Indians.

While Mugg was away however, a force was sent to attack the Indians at their winter quarters. The fortification was burned but the Indians managed to escape. Among the captives in the first attack was the son of Harvard-educated Rev. Thomas Cobbett of Ipswich.

The pastor was not universally popular. A former parishioner claimed he “had as leave to hear a dog bark as to hear Mr. Cobbett preach” and Luke Perkins who lived near the wharf was whipped for saying the minister was “more fit to be in a hog sty than in a pulpit”. You can imagine the townspeople’s surprise when the ship carrying Mugg arrived at the Ipswich wharf, allowing Mugg to visit Rev. Cobbet at his home on East Street to negotiate a ransom for his son. The deal was struck, and when Mugg returned to Maine the young Cobbett was soon released in exchange for a coat as ransom to the Sagamore who was holding him. Mugg proposed to the English that he be allowed to go into the wilderness to bring back the captives, promising to return with them within four days. The vessels awaited his reappearance in vain.

An expedition was dispatched to the East under Major Walderne early in February, but it accomplished little and arrived back in Boston on the 11th of March. When Mugg heard about the attack during his absence, and knowing that his own people felt he had betrayed them, he rejoined the war and resumed hostilities in April. Again came the call for soldiers and again the dauntless men of Ipswich had their place in the little army that was hurried to the front. The enemy was close at hand in Wells, York, and Portsmouth, but the decisive event of the campaign happened at Black Point, where Captain Lovett’s company was led into an ambush and he and about forty of his command were slain. Mugg was killed at the reestablished garrison at Black Point on May 16, 1677, the place his forces had captured the preceding year, after conducting a second attack against the English. (read William Hubbard’s different version of this story)

General Denison

The contribution of Ipswich to the army was notable. General Denison was the commander-in-chief of all the forces of the Colony. Major Appleton brought the first campaign to a victorious close, and by his decisive repulse of the Indians at Hatfield and elsewhere saved not only the Connecticut towns from destruction, but delivered the Colony from their invasions. His services in the Narragansett winter campaign were of great value.

The danger came no nearer to Ipswich. Peace settled gradually upon the community wearied and worn with so many alarms. The strain upon the life of the Colony had been intense. The financial burden of equipping troops, maintaining them in the field, and meeting losses occasioned by the burning of houses and of whole towns was most oppressive. The drain upon the young life was exhausting. Scarcely a family could have escaped the anxiety due to the presence of some member in the field, or the grief over his death.

Ipswich soldiers in King Philip’s War

The following list of names has been compiled, which may be presumed to be substantially correct. Nathaniel Adams, Simon Adams, Alexander Alhor, Thomas Andrews, Richard Bidford, Job Bishop, Samuel Bishop, Christopher Bolles, Thomas Bray, Richard Briar, Josiah Briggs, John Browne, James Burbee, Andrew Burley, James Burnam, Thomas Burns, Samuel Chapman, John Chub, Josiah Clark, Isaac Cumins, Philemon Deane, John Denison, Thomas Dennis, Thomas Dow, Robert Dutch, John Edwards, Nathaniel Emerson, Peter Emons, Jonathan Fantum, Thomas Faussee, Ephraim Fellows, Isaac Fellows, Joseph Fellows, Abram Fitz, James Foord, Thomas French, Samuel Giddings, John Gilbert, Amos Gourdine, Simon Grow, Thomas Hobbs, William Hodgskin, Israeli Hunewell, Samuel Hunt, Jr., Samuel Itigols, Joseph Jacobs, Richard Jacobs, Thomas Jaques, Jeremiah Jewett, Joseph Jewett, Thomas Killom, Caleb Kimball, Abraham Knowlton, John Knowlton, John Lambert, Nathaniel Lampson, Richard Lewis, John Leyton, John Line, John Littlehale, Nathaniel Lord, Jolin Lovel, Jonathan Lummus, Peter Lurvey, Thomas Manning, Joseph Marshall, Thomas Meritor, Edward Neland, Benjamin Newman, Thomas Newman, Zaccheus Newmarsh, Richard Pasmore, Samuel Peirce, John Pengry, Aaron Pengry, John Pengry, Moses Pengry, Isaac Perkins, John Perkins, Samuel Perkins, Andrew Peters, Thomas Philips, Samuel Pipin, Samuel Pooler, Edmond Potter, John Potter, Richard Prior, Joseph Proctor, William Quarles, Daniel Ringe, Nathaniel Rogers, Israh Ross, Ariel Saddler, Joseph Safford, Thomas Scott, Samuel Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas Sparks, Samuel Stevens, George Stimson, Seth Story, William Story, Samuel Taylor, John Thomas, Jonathan Wade, Thomas Wade, Uzall Warden. Francis Wainwright, Jacob Wainwright, Thomas Wayte, Benjamin Webster, John Whipple, Nathaniel Wood, Francis Young, and Lewis Zachariah.

Treatment of the Indians

In the treatment of the Indians, there was an excess of virulent hate that is painful, though not surprising. Allowance must be made for the natural hatred roused by the craft and cruelties of the Indians, and their ingratitude for kind treatment, yet a fair-minded man like Major Ciookin found much to blame in the unrighteous dealings of the English with “the inferior race.” Two hundred were captured by craft at Dover, though no crime was proved against them, and sold into slavery. King Philip’s son, a lad of tender years was sent to Barbadoes as a slave. Twenty shillings bounty was offered for every Indian scalp and forty shillings for every prisoner in the Eastern campaign. Captain Mosely captured an Indian woman early in the war, and in the postscript of his letter to the Governor, he wrote: “This aforesaid Indian was ordered to be torn in pieces by Dogs and she was so dealt withal.”

The Praying Indians

In 1646, the General Court of Massachusetts passed an “Act for the Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Indians.” Christian Indian towns were established in Eastern and Central Massachusetts, including Littleton, Chelmsford, Grafton, Marlborough, Hopkinton, Canton, Mendon and Natick, serving as a barrier between the Colonists and local tribes. At the beginning of King Philip’s War, Praying Indians offered their service as scouts to the English in Massachusetts but were generally confined to their villages. An Order for their removal was passed in October 1675, and 500 Christian Indians were confined to Deer island in Boston Harbor. When they were released in 1676, only 167 had survived. After the war, in 1677 the General Court of Massachusetts disbanded 10 of the original 14 towns and placed the rest under English supervision.

Daniel Gookin was a missionary to the Nipmuck Indians who he claimed were wrongly persecuted by Colonial forces. In his letter, Historical Account of the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England in the Years 1675-1677 he accuses the New England colonists as overcome by a “spirit of enmity and hatred” for not realising that they were subjugating those who had “proved so faithful to the English interest.”

The war had terrible consequences for both sides. Thousands of Algonquians were killed and hundreds were sold into slavery, resulting in the end of the Algonquian world.

References and further reading:

    by Thomas Franklin Waters by William M. Hubbard Ellis and Morris by J. H. Temple by George M. Bodge by John Stevens Cabot by Henry Trumbull, Mrs. Johnson (Susannah Willard), Zadock Steele

The Legend of Heartbreak Hill - "In Ipswich town, not far from the sea, rises a hill which the people call Heartbreak Hill, and its history is an old, old legend known to all." The Great Dying 1616-1619, “By God’s visitation, a wonderful plague” - An estimated 18,000,000 Native Americans lived in North America before the 17th Century. The arrival of 102 Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620 and the settlements by the Puritans a decade later were accompanied by the demise of the native population of North America. Who Were the Agawam Indians, Really? - It’s hard for people to change their stories—so embedded in deep time and official canon, even when there is a better explanation or a closer truth. I hope it will be possible to change public knowledge about the Native Americans who lived here and get closer to the truth.

The Amazing Story of Hannah Duston, March 14, 1697 - Hannah Duston was born in Ipswich in 1657 while her mother was visiting her relatives the Shatswells. A bronze statue in Haverhill honors her daring escape, killing and scalping a dozen Abanaki captors.

The Bull Brook Paleo-Indian Discovery - in the early 1950's, a group of young amateur archeologists men discovered one of the largest Paleo-Indian sites in North America along the banks of Bull Brook and the Egypt River in Ipswich, with over 6,000 artifacts uncovered.

Emma Jane Mitchell Safford - Emma Jane Mitchell Safford was a descendant of Massasoit, Sachem of the Wampanoag. Her daughter, also Emma, tried to help her relatives regain land taken from them on the reservation.

Ipswich, the Brookfield Massacre and King Philip’s War - In 1660, a group of Ipswich families settled in Quaboag which they renamed Brookfield. Indian attacks in 1675 resulted in its destruction.

Living Descendants of the Native Americans of Agawam - Descendants of the Pawtucket are living in Abenaki, Pequaket, Penobscot, and Micmac communities today in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Nova Scotia. The Tragedy of the Wilderness: The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 4 - Native Americans and settlers managed to impoverish themselves through overexploitation of the wider environment. At the same time, they both also selectively protected species, custom-designed habitats for them, and practiced common-sense conservation of trees, soil, fish stocks, and water

“Brought to Civility” — The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 2 - The idea of private property was alien to Native Americans, but the practice of private ownership apparently was not a feature of colonial life either. Discovery of native American shell heap on Treadwell’s Island, 1882 - In1882, a shell heap on the shore of Treadwell's Island was observed to contain nearly two quarts of human bones, broken into short pieces. Native American Influence on English Fashions - In contact situations in the early 17th century, Europeans were quick to grasp the essential humanity of Native Americans and admired their appearance and physical fitness. Soon, upper-class English wore American feathers and furs, Native Americans prized English woven fabrics and garments, especially tailored shirts.

PTSD in the Massachusetts Bay Colony - The Great Migration brought nearly 14,000 Puritan settlers, unprepared for the hardships and trauma that awaited them. Building a new society in the wilderness induced transgenerational post-traumatic stress and mass conversion disorder, culminating in the Salem Witch Trials.

The Bones of Masconomet - On March 6, 1659 a young man named Robert Cross dug up the remains of the Agawam chief Masconomet, and carried his skull on a pole through Ipswich streets, an act for which Cross was imprisoned, sent to the stocks, then returned to prison until a fine was paid. Ancient Prejudice against “the Indians” Persists in Essex County Today - Beneath broad acceptance of Indian rights and benign admiration for aspects of Native culture lies inherited hostility toward Native people. Unrecognized, it has gone unchallenged, but locally I have found it evident in these six ways. Disorder in the Corn Fields: The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 3 - Today, vestiges of the Commons survive here as city parks or conservation lands, such as the South Green in Ipswich, and public gardens, such as Boston Common.

“That we may avoid the least scrupulo of intrusion” – The Colonists and Indian Land, Part I - More than the concepts of sovereignty and private property, the commodification of nature in the service of mercantile capitalism was the crux of the problem.

Manitou in Context - The creator power was regarded as the equal of other powers in the skyworld and the underworld, but it is Kitanitowit’s Gitchi Manitou that ascended to prominence under the influence of Christianity. Of all the great spirits, it most resembled the Christian God and was transformed accordingly during the Contact Period.


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